martes, 17 de agosto de 2010



Teotihuacan, the place where men become gods, is an archaeological site located in the State of Mexico, between the towns of San Juan Teotihuacan and San Martin de las Piramides, 48 km northeast of Mexico City. Its climate is semi-dry with an average temperature of 15 ° C.

This ancient ceremonial center is one of the most important pre-Hispanic America due to his masterful urban layout, its architectural monumentality and strong religious and political influence exerted in their time to other cities is also one of the more archaeological sites visited and assessed in the Mexican Republic. The ancient metropolis has a main road from the magnificent buildings which were constructed of a ceremonial, social, civil and housing, like the pyramids of the Sun and the Moon, the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the Patio de los Jaguares, Quetzalpapálotl and Citadel, many decorated with magnificent murals which still remain valuable examples ...

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Schedules and Recommendations

Monday to Sunday from 7:00 to 18:00 hours.
Typical foods in Teotihuacan

Enjoy the dishes in Teotihuacan, where you can enjoy dishes from around the State of Mexico in the different restaurants and dining places. Among the most famous delicacies are the broth of mutton, pork carnitas and barbacoa.

Additionally, typical foods in Teotihuacan which you can enjoy culinary wonders of the world who combine to perfection the modern and pre-Hispanic food, resulting in delicious dishes like the traditional pulque, the mushroom forest, the capulines and salamanders.

Teotihuacán Map

A reachable Teotihuacan Mexico City, exit at Pachuca, located on Insurgentes Avenue North. After the house is a few minutes a diversion pointing to the Pyramids.

If you arrive by bus, Indios Verdes metro line has three runs to the location, or you can take the bus from the North Bus Station, which also has a direct route to Teotihuacan. In any of these points, the route is less than an hour.


Teotihuacan (Nahuatl: Teotihuacan, "Place where the gods were made, city of the gods') is the name given by the Aztecs to the remains of ancient urban center of Mesoamerica before them and reached the zenith during Classic period and now an archaeological site located in the valley of the same name, which is part of the Basin of Mexico. Dista 45 km northeast of Mexico City and is part of the municipalities of San Juan Teotihuacan and San Martin de las Piramides, on the northeastern state of Mexico. Although the city came to have an area of approximately 21 km2, at present all the archaeological monuments are open for public visit represents about one-tenth of the original city. Have reached a population of between 150 and 200 000 inhabitants in its heyday.

Since the Mesoamerican period, the city of Teotihuacan was the subject of interest of the peoples who succeeded the Teotihuacan in Mesoamerica. In the Temple of Mexico-Tenochtitlan have discovered numerous relics of Teotihuacan origin, as has been concluded that among the early explorers of the archaeological site found themselves Mexica. It was not until the late nineteenth century when they repaired the most outstanding monuments of the city: the foundations now known as Pyramid of the Sun and Moon, located in the vicinity of the Calzada de los Muertos, named by researchers from the early twentieth century .

Teotihuacan was inscribed on the List of World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987. It is the archaeological area of country with the largest influx of tourists, up from sites such as Chichen Itza or Monte Alban. Despite what might be assumed given the large number of restored monuments of the site, Teotihuacan archaeological excavations continue to this day, and have resulted in a gradual increase in the quality and quantity of knowledge you have about this city, which, incidentally, are not known issues as important as its original name and the ethnic affiliation of their founders. It is known, however, was a cosmopolitan city by the documented presence of groups from the Gulf Coast or the Central Valleys of Oaxaca.
Physical environment
The pre-Columbian city of Teotihuacan was built in a valley crossed by the San Juan River, which flows into Lake Texcoco, whose surface is now very low. This valley is surrounded by mountains Patlachique the hills to the south and north Malinalco Gordo. It has a natural outlet to the Texcoco basin from the southwest. Teotihuacan Valley is located at an altitude of between 2240 and
2350 m, ie, rises from an altitude similar to the level of Mexico City in the southwest corner of the valley to a few hundred meters to the northeast, near Otumba.

Often thought of the Basin of Mexico in ancient times was covered with vast forests and a climate characterized by less arid than it is specific to the region today. However, interdisciplinary studies have shown no major changes in the level of moisture in Anahuac. It is true that the human presence in the Valley of Teotihuacan, as in other parts of Mexico, has significantly altered the landscape. Not to go further, human action caused the almost complete desiccation of Lake Texcoco and in pre-Columbian times, changing the river San Juan to adapt its course to the urban plan of Teotihuacan.

Historical sequence
The period of greatest height of Teotihuacan for the Early Classic Mesoamerica (ss. II / III-VI). However, the beginnings of the city should be placed in the first millennium before the Common Era. Strategically located northeast of the Valley of Mexico, near the north shore of Lake Texcoco, Teotihuacan became the main competition during the Late Preclassic Cuicuilco. The eruption of Xitle valley in southern hastened the fall of Cuicuilco and favored the concentration of population and political and economic power in Teotihuacan.

For reasons that have not yet been fully elucidated, Teotihuacan collapsed in the mid-eighth century, giving rise to Epiclassic Mesoamerica. The remains of the city gave rise to numerous explanations for their presence among Postclassic Nahua people, who are known for recovery efforts of the missionaries in India, like Bernardino de Sahagún


Principal sites associated with the city of Teotihuacan.Los historians have concluded that the creators of this civilization was a town that has not been reported. They are sure that the Olmecs were neither nor the Toltecs. Nahua ethnicity can be ruled out, since the end of Teotihuacan roughly coincides with the estimated date of arrival of Nahua Mexico. The linguist Lyle Campbell, a specialist in American languages, believes that ethnicity most likely for the Totonac Teotihuacan, although other authors consider most likely that ethnicity was more likely Otomi. It is known from the excavations that Teotihuacan's oldest predates the Toltec culture and a government by a theocracy.

In the early centuries AD, Teotihuacan had become a state that was expanding their trade and tax heavily on Mesoamerica and its cultural influence. During its golden age influenced and inspired many neighboring towns other cultures besides scientific and cultural knowledge to bequeath to later societies. For this reason it is commonly found throughout the Mexican territory traces and evidence of this culture.

Teotihuacan expansion was not achieved only by arms but by the combination of military activity, trade and political alliances. The main merchandise was monopolized by the Teotihuacan obsidian, alabaster and Thin Orange ceramics. When the city became great and powerful, the houses became masonry buildings rather than simple huts. The ruling class, the aristocracy, lived in a neighborhood surrounded by a wall, built near what is now called the Street of the Dead (or road or track). Its palaces were richly adorned with wall paintings which depict animals, gods and other characters related to religion. The rest of the population lived in housing projects of varying size and structure.

These buildings, of which over 2,000 were built, consisted of apartments on one level, interconnected with a central courtyard with a small shrine of the tutelary god of the inhabitants, who came to be between 60 and 100. The amount and arrangement of the sets varied depending on the class and social position of their inhabitants, but today was identified as housing nuclei counted streets of variable size with an area averaging 60 square meters..


Around 650 began its gradual decline. The population was reduced by social factors and climate. In the eighth century and reached the sunset, although the valley was not abandoned ever. There is no known cause of decline and its total destruction.

Recent studies show that the decline of this culture could be due to mismanagement and the misuse of the environment. The houses are whitewashed several times a year with lime extracted from the logging and subsequent burning of trees around the city. Indiscriminate cutting for years, coupled with mismanagement and discontent of the population, possibly provoked a mass rebellion, which destroyed the city, not in a day, but in a few years. Another theory is that the city was abandoned at the end of its cycle, as in the ruins there is no revolt traits. When Teotihuacan declined, other cultural centers and commercially dependent it also swiftly to decline, as happened to
Monte Alban, and even the Mayan civilization.


Sahagun was also the father who picked up the mouth of the Mexica legend that talks about the creation of the sun and moon, the gods they are dedicated the two magnificent pyramids. It reads:

Before there day, the gods met in Teotihuacan and said, Who will light the world? A rich god (Tecuzitecatl) said I will take the charge of lighting the world. Who will be the other?, And as no one answered, I ordered another god who was poor and buboso (Nanahuatzin). After the appointment, the two began to do penance and to raise prayers. The rich god gave valuable feathers of a bird called the quetzal, balls of gold, precious stones, coral and copal incense. The buboso (named Nanautzin), offered green canes, balls of hay, covered with maguey thorns of his blood, and instead of incense, offered the scabs of their galls. At midnight, the penance was completed and started the services. The gods gave to God a beautiful rich plumage and a canvas jacket and the poor god, a shawl of paper. Then they lit the fire and ordered that metiera rich god within. But he was afraid and drew back. He tried again and went back, and up to four times. Then it was the turn of Nanautzin he closed his eyes and went on fire and burned. When the rich man saw him, he imitated. Then came an eagle, which also burned (hence the eagle has feathers sullen, dark brown or negrestinas, color black) and then went into a tiger and was scorched black and white spotted. The gods then sat down to wait on what part would Nanautzin; looked eastward and saw the sun rise very red, they could not look and cast rays everywhere. East turned to look out and saw the moon. At first the two gods shone equally, but one of those present threw a rabbit into the face of god and so rich it reduced glare. All were still on earth, then chose to die to give life thereby to the Sun and the Moon. Air was who was responsible for killing and then the wind began to blow and move, first the sun and the moon later. So out the sun during the day and the moon later in the evening.
This legend explains the origin of the name itself Teotihuácan "place where gods were made 'since according to legend this is where two gods, the sun and moon, they became gods (Nahuatl Teotihuacan' be [a] god 'Teotihuacan' make [someone] in [a] god, 'Teo' being transformed into a god ').

According to legend, would be at Teotihuacan where the gods would have been born. In this place where the sun and the moon rose into the sky, as witness the dedication of two pyramids. No wonder that all civilizations of the Mexican plateau say down the civilization of Teotihuacan. The site is great and so awesome that seems really to have been built by gods. But we know almost nothing of the men who settled this town in the second century AD. The city had over 100,000 inhabitants at its peak. Teotihuacán was destroyed in the seventh century, but the reasons are known. The city was devoid of fortifications and the paintings discovered show no trace of violence. However, there would be very much influenced by Teotihuacan in Mesoamerica. All advanced civilizations in the region joined the Teotihuacán style to its architecture, as shown by the representations of Quetzalcoatl, the famous "feathered serpent" is found in virtually all archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala.

The History of Sun and Moon
As currently configured it can be deduced that took careful planning work. Four zones are appreciated or major axes. From north to south lies the main street, the pavement of the Dead. Recently it was found perpendicular to the other axis, consisting of two streets that cross the Citadel and are not visible today. Archaeologists have called Avenue East and West Avenue.

The town was well differentiated in neighborhoods and religious ceremonial center, where buildings were administrative and great palaces, as well as temples and great pyramids.

The priests had a leading role with regard to religion and government. The architects and artists were well regarded and had workshops. As for the military, little is known, it is known that it was not a militaristic society but in the final period appeared more frequently in the representations of soldiers in the mural.


La Calzada de los Muertos
This road, known by Street of the Dead is named for subsequent researchers who thought they were staying in their structures tombs of dignitaries. It was the axis of the city and ceremonial center. He was flanked by the most vast structures in Central America. The urban organization of this great city in Central America greatly influenced.

Start this great on the floor of the Pyramid of the Moon and going to die on the grounds that the sixteenth century Spanish called Citadel. Its length is 2 km, has a width of 40 m and is oriented 15 º 30 'east of astronomical north, as with nearly all the buildings here. Along the street are the most important buildings for churches, palaces and houses of character height. There are, besides the two great pyramids, the Priest House, the Palace of Quetzalpapalotl (Quetzalmariposa), the Palace of the Jaguars, the structure of feathered conches, the temple of Quetzalcoatl, the town and many buildings rather than their day were of great beauty. In one of the rooms were found floors constructed with two layers of mica sheets of 6 cm thick, which were later covered with volcanic rock. The visitor can see this curiosity if prompted to guard the compound.

The Great Basement

They have a core made of adobe. They were then covered with stucco and stone and added a frieze decorated with geometric reliefs were built as a church basement that was in the platform. The Spanish who arrived in the sixteenth century, yet they could see the idols of the Sun and the Moon.
They were made of stone covered with gold and the idol of the Sun had a hole in his chest and that hole was the image of the planet also made of fine gold. They also say that came to see the platform of more than 2,000 secondary pyramids, each about two important of the Sun and the Moon.

Pyramid of the Sun
Built: 50D.C to 200D.C is the largest of the pyramids of the city, its structure is the largest volume in the entire hotel and is also the second largest in Mexico with a height of 63.5 meters, second only to the Cholula, the base occupies 45 thousand square meters. There is no evidence that Teotihuacan's been called that way, like the Pyramid of the Moon.

Pyramid of the Moon
It is smaller than the Pyramid of the Sun, but is at the same height because it is built on higher ground. Its height is 45 m. Along with this pyramid was found a statue called the Goddess of Agriculture that archaeologists located in early Toltec period.

This pyramid is located very near the Sun, closing the north precinct of the city. Since the path begins esplanade major axis known as Via or Calzada de los Muertos.